Over the last 100 years there have been 189 appointments made to the U.S. Senate to fill vacancies created for a variety of reasons such as retirement, death, or resignations to become president or vice-president. Kentucky leads the way with the most such appointments since the introduction of direct elections in 1913 with eight, followed by New Jersey, North Carolina, and South Carolina with seven, and Idaho and Minnesota with six. The state average is 3.8 appointments during this span, with the most recent being Nevada Republican Dean Heller to fill John Ensign’s seat earlier this year. Four states, however, have not had to appoint a single U.S. Senator over these last 98 years: Arizona, Maryland, Utah, and Wisconsin. Hawaii, Maine, and Oklahoma have appointed just one each.